International Identity and Border Control
Air passenger numbers have increased rapidly in recent times. In 2014 an estimated 3.2 billion passengers flew on scheduled international air services and there were an estimated, record number, 33 million aircraft departures. Additionally, it is predicted that international passenger flows will continue to increase on average some 5% annually over the next 20 years, according to the IATA industry consensus forecast of 14 February 2011. In tandem with this, as passenger and aircraft movements have increased, security risks have multiplied and the nature and complexity of the threats have intensified. In the past decade and a half, security at border controls has been stepped up intensely. Passports must ensure that the vast majority of travellers, who are bona fide, are able to cross the border in a smooth manner, while also enabling border agents to prevent unauthorised entry.